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Brass, alloy of copper và zinc, of historical và enduring importance because of its hardness và workability. The earliest brass, called calamine brass, dates khổng lồ Neolithic times; it was probably made by reduction of mixtures of zinch ores và copper ores. In ancient documents, such as the Bible, the term brass is often used khổng lồ denote bronze, the alloy of copper with tin.

Characteristics of the alloy

The malleability of brass depends on the zinch content; brasses that contain more than 45 percent zinc are not workable, either hot or cold. Such brasses, known as Trắng brasses, are of little industrial importance, though a granulated size is used in brazing (soldering); they also size the basis for certain alloys used in die-casting. The malleable brasses may be further subdivided into lớn those that can be worked cold (generally those with less than 40 percent zinc) and those with a greater zinc content, which require hot working. The former group, known as the altrộn brasses, are widely used in the manufacture of pins, bolts, screws, and ammunition cartridge cases. The beta brasses are less ductile but stronger và thus are suitable for the manufacture of faucet handles, sprinkler heads, window và door fittings, and other fixtures. A third group of brasses includes those with other elements besides copper và zinc, added khổng lồ improve sầu physical and mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, or machinability or khổng lồ modify colour. Aao ước these are the lead brasses, which are more easily machined; the naval and admiralty brasses, in which a small amount of tin improves resistance to lớn corrosion by seawater; and the aluminum brasses, which provide strength and corrosion resistance where the naval brasses may fail.


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Brass ware

The ancient Romans used brass primarily in vessels, dress armour, jewelry, and brooches or clasps. Brass production declined after Rome withdrew from northern Europe but resumed during the Carolingian period. More malleable than bronze, brass was used to make ewers và basins, lamps, bowls, jugs, và numerous other household items.

From the 13th lớn the 17th century in Europe, monumental brasses were used to lớn commemorate the dead. Engraved brass plates, depicting the deceased, were phối inlớn the surface of the tomb and often were embellished with inscriptions, heraldic devices, và other designs appropriate lớn the individual’s life and circumstances. More than 4,000 of them still exist in Engl& alone. In the 16th century, before silver from the New World flooded Europe, brass basins & plates gained enormous popularity as decorative showpieces for the homes of the bourgeoisie. Such pieces were hammered and embossed with elaborate designs. When the silver and gold of the Americas supplanted brass as a decorative sầu metal, it found other uses in the manufacture of utilitarian household wares và chandeliers, candlesticks, sundials, và clocks. In addition, brass became a major material for the manufacture of fine instruments for astronomy, surveying, navigation, và other scientific pursuits. Brass was often forged, cast, chased, và decorated with engraving. See also bronze; bronze work.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia cheap-kenya-vacation-tips.comThis article was most recently revised và updated by Adam Augustyn, Managing Editor, Reference Content.