Bài tập unit 8 lớp 12

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The Aptera can go 150 miles after just 15 minutes at an ordinary charging station. Starting price is $25,900.

The first mass-produced solar-powered cars are slated to roll off the assembly line this year. Could this be a breakthrough in climate-friendly transportation?


The dream began in 1955, with a tiny, toylượt thích creation called the “Sunsản phẩm điện thoại.” Built from balsa wood and hobby shop tires, it was just 15 inches long. The 12 selenium solar cells that decorated its exterior produced less horsepower than an actual horse. But it was proof of a concept: Sunlight alone can make a vehicle run.

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The years went on, and the dream evolved into a converted vintage buggy with solar panels on its roof. Then a glorified bicycle, a retiree’s garage project, a racecar that crossed the Mojave Desert at 51 miles per hour.

It is a dream of perpetual motion. Of travel that doesn’t vì chưng damage khổng lồ the planet. Of journeys that last as long as the sun shines.

There are problems with this dream, big ones. Clouds come. Night falls. The laws of physics limit how efficiently solar panels can turn light into lớn energy.

But one start-up claims it has overcome those problems. Now, its founders say, the dream can be yours for as little as $25,900.

Aptera Motors, a California company whose name comes from the ancient Greek for “wingless,” is rolling out the first mass-produced solar car this year. It’s a three-wheel, ultra-aerodynamic electric vehicle covered in 34 square feet of solar cells. The oto is so efficient that, on a clear day, those cells alone could provide enough energy to lớn drive about 40 miles — more than twice the distance of the average American’s commute.

The Aptera must undergo safety tests before the company can begin distribution, which it hopes khổng lồ vì by the kết thúc of this year. Even then, it’s not clear that consumers will want to lớn buy something that looks like a cross between the Batthiết bị di động và a beetle. The shadow of an initial attempt, which ended in bankruptcy, hangs over the founders as they gear up khổng lồ launch their new product.

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But the Aptera’s creators, Chris Anthony and Steve sầu Fambro, think the world needs a oto like theirs. Transportation is the largest source of planet-warming pollution in the United States. The Biden administration has made it a priority to lớn reduce vehicle emissions, and several major automakers have pledged khổng lồ phase out cars and light trucks with internal combustion engines.

After years of dreaming, maybe the time for driving on sunshine is finally here.

Solar panel power

Anthony và Fambro didn’t phối out to build a vehicle that could run on solar power. They just wanted lớn make a more efficient oto.

Burning gasoline, it turns out, is not a very efficient way to lớn travel; as much as four-fifths of the energy produced by an internal combustion engine is lost as heat, wasted overcoming wind resistance or used up by fuel pumps & other components, according to lớn Energy Department data.


All-electric vehicles perform much better, but they’re still not perfect. About 10 percent of the energy that goes into lớn them is lost converting alternating current from the electrical grid inkhổng lồ direct current for the battery. Inefficiencies in the drive system eat up another 20 percent, & the oto must still giảm giá with wind resistance and friction, through regenerative sầu braking systems can reduce some waste.

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From top khổng lồ wheels, the Aptera is designed to lớn eliminate as much waste as possible. Its creators say the car is 13 times more efficient than a gas-powered pickup truck and four times more efficient than the average electric vehicle. At least 90 percent of the power produced by the Aptera’s solar panels goes toward making the vehicle move sầu, the company says.