Subjunctive mood

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The subjunctive sầu is a “mood” (or “mode”) in the grammatical world, which is similar lớn a tense, but rather than expressing when something happened, it expresses the speaker’s attitude toward the subject. A few other grammatical moods are indicative (used for declarative sầu sentences) and imperative sầu (expressing a suggestion or command).

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These moods combine with tense lớn pack a whole lot of information into one verb: both when something occurred và an underlying subjective mood that the speaker wants khổng lồ express from their perspective. The subjective sầu mood or attitude toward the topic in the case of subjunctive could be one of desire, an opinion, or feeling. Notice that these subjunctive sentences always have two verbs (in bold). Chechồng out a few examples:Espero que podamos ir al cine juntos.(I hope that we can go khổng lồ the movies together.)Me alegra que cantes.(I’m glad that you are singing.)Es umãng cầu pena que no sea del tamaño correcto.(It’s a shame it’s not the right kích cỡ.)Es necesario que estudies mucho para aprobar el examen.(It’s necessary that you study a lot to pass the exam.)This isn’t to say that choosing when khổng lồ use the subjunctive is subjective! Its use is not an extra voluntary feature: In Spanish there are certain situations which always require the subjunctive sầu. In this guide, find out both how to lớn size the most common subjunctive tense (present) và when to use it!

When to Use the Subjunctive

Syntactic Environments

Syntax giao dịch with the structure of a sentence. Sentences which require the subjunctive have sầu two clauses, two verbs, & two subjects. The subjunctive sầu tense is always used in the second, dependent clause, but the main clause và main verb are important for introducing the subjunctive-type topic (doubt, desire, possibilities). You will often notice the following syntactic features of subjunctive sentences:A. a dependent clause using que (or another phrase like a conjunction from the lists in the next sections linking a main & dependent clause – there are some exceptions khổng lồ this one)B. two different subjects in the main and dependent clausesDubởi vì que él venga.(I doubt that he is coming.)A. Dependent clause: The que functions in the same way as “that” in English in this sentence, namely linking the main clause (dudo) and the dependent clause (underlined).B. Two different subjects: The subject of the main clause is yo (I), và the subject of the dependent clause (underlined) is él (he). The verb of the main clause (dudar) is in the present indicative sầu. The verb of the dependent clause (venir) is in the present subjunctive sầu.Es importante que conduzcas con cuidabởi.(It is important that you drive sầu carefully.)B. Two different subjects: The subject of the main clause is “it,” which is sometimes called a “dummy subject” or impersonal subject because it serves as a subject without having any real meaning or referring to lớn any real person. Many subjunctive sầu sentences are impersonal.This doesn’t mean that you always use the subjunctive sầu after que. Keep your eye out for the “moody” subjective meaning of the sentence và combine that with the syntactic triggers (A và B above) lớn decide when to lớn use subjunctive. Here are a few examples of sentences with the correct syntactic triggers but that don’t use the subjunctive because they are not subjective sầu enough; namely, they are expressing too certain of a fact.Veo que se comió todas las galletas.

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(I see that he ate all of the cookies.)Escuché que el tren llega tarde.(I heard that the train is arriving late.)

Combining Different Tenses with Present Subjunctive

The present subjunctive can be used in the dependent clause khổng lồ talk about something occurring presently or in the future. The action in the main clause needs to use one of the following tenses (also talking about the present or future), followed by the subjunctive sầu in the dependent clause.TenseMain clauseDependent clausepresentQuiero… (I want…)que venga. (her to come.) (her coming.)progressive (estar + gerundio)Estoy deseando… (I am looking forward to…)que venga. (her to lớn come.) (her coming.)futureQuerré… (I will want…)…say đắm se porta bien. (…only if she behaves herself)que venga. (her to come.) (her coming.)future (ir + a)Voy a necesitar… (I am going to need…)que venga. (her lớn come.) (her coming.)imperative¡Espera que venga! (Wait for her to come!)n/a

Semantic Environments

Coupled with your expertise on syntactic situations involving the subjunctive sầu, you can use these meaning-based (semantic) triggers to know when to lớn use the subjunctive sầu. Subjunctive is commonly used with the following phrases to express desires, hopes, judgments, opinions, uncertainty, & surprise. Take a look at these common phrases that are found with the subjunctive sầu lớn get an idea of what types of topics require its use.Expressing Hypothetical Possibility, Situational Dependency, or DoubtThese conjunctions join the main and dependent clauses (with or instead of que) và can be used with the subjunctive.SpanishEnglisha condición de queon the condition thata fin de queso that; in order thata no ser queunlessa pesar de quealthoughaunqueeven thoughcomo sias ifcon tal de queprovided thatcuandowhen, ifde ahí quehencedespués de queafteren caso de quein the case thathasta queuntilmientras quewhilepara queso that, in order thatpor mievì chưng a quefor fear thatsin quewithout (which)rã pronkhổng lồ comoas soon asposiblementepossiblyprobablementeprobablyquizá/quizásmaybe, perhapstal vezmaybe, perhaps
Wish, will, or commandThese expressions bởi vì not have a written “dummy subject,” but the meaning is implied.expression + que + subjuntivoExample:Urge que me llames.(It’s urgent that you gọi me.)SpanishEnglishbastait sufficeses importanteit’s importanturgeit’s urgentojaláhopefully, it is to lớn be hoped
Impersonal Expressions Expressing Opinion/Counselexpression (with “dummy” subject es) + que + subjuntivoExample:Es aconsejable que traigas un impermeable a Londres.(It is advisable that you bring a raincoat to lớn London.)SpanishEnglishes aconsejableit is advisablees convenienteit is sensible/desirablees fundamentalit is fundamentales importanteit is importantes posibleit is possiblees probableit is probablees imprescindibleit is indispensable/essentiales improbableit is unlikelyes inciertoit is uncertaines interesanteit is interestinges mejorit is betteres necesarioit is necessaryes urgenteit is urgent
positive sầu vibes only heartsPositive sầu Vibes OnlyThe following verbs express doubt in the affirmative sầu, but when combined with a negation (no), their meaning is the opposite, meaning that there is no longer the implication of possibility. When used in the negative sầu, these verbs vì not use the dudar que: to not doubt thatno xuất xắc dudomain authority de que: there is no doubt thatNegative sầu Vibes OnlySome phrases express a certain fact when used in the affirmative, but express a possibility when used in a negative sense. This means that when using the following phrases in a “negative” or contradictory way, often when asking a question to kiểm tra the speaker’s understanding, the subjunctive sầu is required.chú ý that these verbs are left in infinitive sầu in this danh sách, though you would need lớn conjugate the first verb in the relevant creer: don’t believe / don’t thinkno parecer: doesn’t seemno considerar: don’t consider

How to lớn Form the Subjunctive

Subjunctive Present

The situations in which the subjunctive sầu is appropriate will probably take some time và lots of exposure lớn Spanish lớn master. But luckily, the conjugation for subjunctive sầu present verbs is fairly easy!Start with the yo (first person singular) present tense indicativeRemove sầu the -o endingAdd the subjunctive present ending (which are “opposite” in the sense that the endings with “a” are for -ir/-er verbs và the endings with “e” go with the -ar verbs)SubjectSubjunctive sầu -ar EndingSubjunctive sầu -ir/-er Endingyo-e-atú-es-asusted, él, ella-e-anosotros-emos-amosvosotros-éis-áisustedes, ellos, ellas-en-an
InfinitiveEscribir (khổng lồ write)Escuchar (to lớn listen)1. Start with the present ind. yoescriboescucho2. Remove sầu the -o ending (stem)escrib-escuch-3. Add subjunctive present endingnosotros escribamostú escuchesExample sentenceDuvì chưng que escribamos un ensayo hoy. (I doubt that we are writing an essay today.)Dubởi vì que escuches música todas las noches. (I doubt that you listen khổng lồ music every night.)

Irregular Subjunctive sầu Verbs

Irregular subjunctive sầu verbs often follow this pattern as well, except that their stems may be different. For stem-changing verbs, use their new stem (already implied by step 2) to lớn khung the subjunctive.InfinitivePensar (khổng lồ think)1. Start with the present ind. yopienso2. Remove sầu the -o ending (stem)piens-3. Add subjunctive sầu present endingtú piensesExample sentenceDudo que pienses que los unicorntiện ích ios existen. (I doubt that you think unicorns exist.)
There are also a few types of verbs that require a spelling change in the subjunctive sầu. This change takes place after you begin with its normal (present indicative) yo form stem change.Spelling ChangeExample InfinitiveSubjunctive-car becomes -qu-buscarbusque-zar becomes -c-comenzarcomience-gar becomes -gu-pagarpague-ger/-gir becomes -j-escoger/eligirescoja/elija
Common Irregular SubjunctivesSaber has an irregular stem in subjunctive sầu, but follows the same pattern of endings: sep-saber (to lớn know)yo sepanosotros sepamossepasvosotros sepáisusted, él, ella sepaustedes, ellos, ellas sepan
Ser (lớn be) và estar (lớn be) are two of the most common verbs in Spanish. Although their translation is the same in English, there are distinct contexts in which they are appropriate.ser (to lớn be)yo seanosotros seamostú seasvosotros seáisusted, él, ella seaustedes, ellos, ellas sean
In all person categories except for nosotros, the “e” has a written accent on it. This is the same for the verb dar (lớn give).estar (lớn be)yo esténosotros estemosestésvosotros estéisusted, él, ella estéustedes, ellos, ellas estén
lưu ý that the accent (é) is the only thing that differentiates “I am/ he/she is” (subjunctive) from the word este, for “this.”

Subjunctive Past

Within the same category of subjunctive mood we have both present & an imperfect tense. The imperfect subjunctive sầu is used for when the dependent clause took place in the past, but it isn’t all that comtháng. For more details on the imperfect subjunctive, see The Ultimate Guide to lớn Spanish Past Tense Forms..Ready to lớn get moody & let everyone know your hopes, dreams, & desires? Urge que tú sign up for’s Spanish course to lớn practice using the subjunctive sầu mood today!